Electrically powered cities

Fig 1: Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia with approximately 12 million inhabitants, by night.
Fig 1: Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia with approximately 12 million inhabitants, by night.

The world population is growing rapidly. It is predicted that approximately 9.7 billion people will live on the earth in 2050. 66% of them will live in cities or mega-cities with more than 10 million inhabitants. Progressive urbanization means a high concentration of the population on a relatively small area. As a result, the existing infrastructures will no longer be sufficient for the provisioning of the inhabitants of the cities.

What makes a city an attractive place to live? What do the inhabitants expect of an urban environment worth living in? First and foremost, clean air, clean water and good climatic conditions are essential for human life. But already today many megacity inhabitants suffer from enormous smog and pollution of the air. Clean water is increasingly becoming a scarce and expensive commodity and the enormous heat in the cities - especially in the summer months - can only be tolerated by people with intensive cooling of the buildings.


Girls‘ stuff and things

March 8 is International Women's Day. We will take this opportunity to remember some of the outstanding achievements of women in politics, science and society.


Fig. 1: Poster on the occasion of Women’s Day 1914 demanding a right to vote for women. Source: Wikimedia/Karl Maria Stadler, public domain.
Fig. 1: Poster on the occasion of Women’s Day 1914 demanding a right to vote for women. Source: Wikimedia/Karl Maria Stadler, public domain.

Women and politics

From a political point of view, 1918 was an important year for women in Germany, as they were given the active and passive right to vote. Some Scandinavian countries had already taken this step, also Russia in 1917, and other European countries soon followed. It had been preceded by numerous demonstrations and events in Europe and the United States, at which women had demanded their right to vote and their civil rights massively and effectively. The German Digital Library provides easy access to digital witnesses of this time. A search with the keyword "Women's suffrage" in the DDB leads to a large number of interesting and informative documents, such as the flyer on women's suffrage from 1913 written by Clara Zetkin.1

 

 


Lametta, Light and Luxury

Fig. 1: Lametta, a must-have Christmas tree decoration in the past
Fig. 1: Lametta, a must-have Christmas tree decoration in the past

„In the past, there used to be more Lametta“,1  nags Grandpa Hoppenstedt in the legendary German Christmas sketch by Loriot. Is this still the case? What makes a good, atmospheric Christmas today? Can there be „innovations“ with such a traditional celebration? A patent search on the topic “Christmas“, carried out in the STN database Derwent World Patents Index (DWPI), is supposed to answer the question as to what are the current trends and preferences in celebrating Christmas events.


Luther, a translation superstar

Fig. 1: Martin Luther, 1529, by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder, oil on wood
Fig. 1: Martin Luther, 1529, by the workshop of Lucas Cranach the Elder, oil on wood

According to tradition, Martin Luther hammered his church-reformatory 95 theses to the portal of the castle church in Wittenberg on the last day of October 1517. He thus triggered a fierce, earthquake-like controversy in church policy. In 1521, Luther was asked to revoke his theses at the Diet of Worms. He refused, was anathematized and banned by the Empire, and henceforth prosecuted not only by the pope, but also by the emperor. In order to avoid persecution, the reformer went underground. The Saxon elector Frederick the Wise allowed him to find shelter at the Wartburg castle in Eisenach, disguised as “Junker Jörg”. There, condemned to idleness and waiting, he translated the New Testament from Greek into German. A Bible translation - this may sound like a meaningful occupation for an unemployed theologian, but it doesn't have much spectacular to begin with. And yet: among other things, this translation of the Bible should make Luther the star of his time. The Luther Bible in German spread quickly thanks to the new invention of letterpress printing and made him famous.


Nothing new in summer

Fig. 1: Summer at the sea, © A. Rasche
Fig. 1: Summer at the sea, © A. Rasche

Summer is known as a time where there is hardly any news. The media fear this time of scarce news as the “summer slump”, because activities in society, the economy and politics are almost coming to a standstill. Nothing is going on, and the journalists are desperately looking for useful new messages.

It's always hard to discover something truly new, and that's what we would be talking about: an inventor also has to invent something truly new, otherwise he won't be able to patent and protect his supposedly innovative idea. Patent law contains some mandatory criteria for patent applications.


The European Inventor Award 2017

Word Cloud © FIZ Karlsruhe

“There is nothing new. Everything that can be invented, has been invented”, stated Charles H. Duell, United States Commissioner of Patents, in 1899. If Duell had been right, this would basically have made his workplace, the US patent office, obsolete. Luckily, he was wrong. People have remained innovative; their will to do research and strive for technical improvements is still unbroken.  This innovative power is reflected by the number of patents filed each year all around the globe. They continuously provide the patent offices with fresh work, as the chart of patents filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) (fig. 1 below) impressively shows.1


My house, my idea, my data – how can we protect our property?

Figure: studiostoks/Shutterstock.com
Figure: studiostoks/Shutterstock.com

April 26 is the World Intellectual Property Day. This commemoration day, suggested by the UNESCO and proclaimed for the first time in 2000 by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), is supposed to create a public awareness for the value of inventions. Intellectual property has special importance for FIZ Karlsruhe who, among other things, offers worldwide patent information through STN International and operates RADAR, an innovative service for research data management and publication. The new issues related to the whole area of intellectual property have induced FIZ Karlsruhe to establish its own research department for IP-rights in information infrastructures.


More than just peanuts

Photo: Andrii Gorulko/Shutterstock.com
Photo: Andrii Gorulko/Shutterstock.com

2016 – The International Year of Pulses

Pulses and legumes, i.e., beans, peas, peanuts, chickpeas, lentils, soy beans, lupines, etc., have quite a tough time with us. Our language in itself expresses a certain disdain for these plants: An annoying pedant is colloquially called a bean counter. Bankers disparagingly refer to “small, negligible” million dollar amounts as “peanuts“. The bible uses a pottage of lentils as an example of something worthless: Esau showed his contempt for his birthright by selling it for a pottage of lentils.1 And, what is more, legumes have the bad reputation of causing severe indigestion.


Keep your hands off the wheel

Kaiser Wilhelm II
Foto: Bildagentur Zoonar GmbH/Shutterstock.com

“I believe in horses. The automobile is a transitory phenomenon”, argued the last German monarch, Emperor Wilhelm II.1 Nevertheless, cars started to conquer the world and have by now become the individual mobility device par excellence. At the time of Emperor Wilhelm II, the transition from the horse to the car revolutionized mobility. Today, a new fundamental change seems to be imminent: from the passenger-driven car to the autonomous car. Many passionate drivers still find it hard to imagine that soon their car will drive, steer, brake, and park all on its own. The drivers and their driving skills lose in importance. The large automobile manufacturers have long since started the era of autonomous driving. But companies from sectors other than the automotive industry, too, sense new market opportunities. A search in the Derwent World Patent Index (DWPI) on STN impressively shows that R&D activities in this field have been strongly increasing throughout the last five years.2


The art of plastics recycling

shark sculpture made entirely of plastic pollution fished from the oceans, ©WashedAshore.org
shark sculpture made entirely of plastic pollution fished from the oceans,
© WashedAshore.org

Plastics have many positive and unique properties: Depending on their type, they can be extremely flexible, elastic or rigid, water-insoluble, sticky, thermoplastic, lighter than water, impact-resistant, sometimes birefringend, transparent or opaque, non-conducting, stronger than steel, and they seem to be ever-lasting. But despite their broad range of properties, all plastics share the same basic molecular structure. They all consist of long chains of repeating molecular units that are aligned like pearls on a string. The German chemist Hermann Staudinger is considered the discoverer of this substance class of macromolecules. In 1953 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work on the structure of plastics.


Twitter